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Essay on Water Pollution Causes, Effects, Prevention Speech

Essay on Water Pollution Causes, Effects, Prevention Speech

Water is equal to life for every living thing, be it humans, animals, birds or trees. We need water to survive on this planet. But what will happen if there is no water for us to drink? All the mankind, animals, trees will vanish from the earth’s surface and sadly that day will be coming earlier than we expect. The reason behind that is Water Pollution. Many manmade activities have polluted the water sources from which we consume the drinking water. And hence it becomes very dangerous for our health.

In this article, we have given you all the information about water pollution, its causes, effects and the ways and means to stop and prevent water pollution. This information will help you to write a perfect essay on water pollution and to prepare a speech on water pollution. so let’s start.

Water Pollution Causes, Effects, Prevention Essay, Speech, Paragraph, Article


Water covers almost two-thirds of the surface of the earth and the rest is occupied by humans, flora, and fauna. Though it covers 70% of the earth’ surface water is still a rare commodity for people in several parts of the world. 320 million people in China, one of the most populated countries, do not have access to clean drinking water.  It is thus an irony in itself that this one-third portion of the Earth under the aegis of humans is responsible for polluting two-thirds of the earth, in the form of water pollution.

Water Pollution or water contamination is the presence of toxic chemicals in a water body to an extent that exceeds the levels found naturally in water. These toxic chemicals pose a threat to the human, animal and plant life. Extensive urbanization and civilization have already led to the pushing back and shrinking of water bodies across the globe and now water pollution is denigrating the quality of the water left.  

Pollution of water is not only limited to the on surface water body but it also extends to the underground water. It can also be segregated into the point and non-point water pollution. Example of a point pollution source would be a factory discharge pipe directly connecting the factory waste to a water body or an oil spill in water. On the other hand, non-point pollution is when several sources combine and create pollution indirectly like a number of industries located near a water body.

Causes of Water Pollution

  • Crude oil and petroleum products

Crude oil and other petroleum products like gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, motor and lubricating oils, jet fuel. Being lighter than water these compounds generally form a layer on the top of the water level.  Some of it though still gets dissolved in water and is harmful to marine life.

  • Industrial Waste

 It contains pollutants in the form of lead, mercury, sulphur(sulfur), asbestos, and nitrates to name a few. Lack of a proper waste management system leads to drainage of the waste into rivers, canals, and seas. These toxic chemicals lead to Eutrophication, a process that changes the temperature of the water and poses serious harm to the water organisms. Essay on Industrialization in English

  • Fertilizers

Fertilizers like nitrates and phosphates, when used in excessive amounts, contribute to the growth of the algae and harmful microorganism already existing in the water body.

  • Solvents

 TCE, PCE, 1,1,1-TCA, carbon tetrachloride, Freons are chlorinated solvents used in the industry and pollute the water bodies. Petroleum solvents including benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and other organic solvents and chemicals such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, alcohols such as ethanol, isopropanol or oxygenate compounds such as MTBE are some primary water pollutants.

  • Herbicides/ Insecticides 

They contain a large number of chemicals like DDT that get dissolved into the neighbouring water bodies during agricultural activities like spraying of crops.

  • Bacteria / Parasites

Human activities like sewage, household waste, and animal excreta add to the problem of water pollution. In India, it is one of the biggest causes of water pollution.

  • Oil Spills

 Around 12% of the oil present in the oceans comes from tanker spills.

  • Marine Dumping

Dumping of materials like plastic in the form of fishing nets, trash left behind by fishermen, and ring can holders etc take a lot of time to decompose and during that time slowly leach harmful chemicals into the water. Essay on Plastic Pollution Speech, Article

  • Leakage from sewer lines

Even a small leak from the underground sewer line pollutes the underground water resource and makes it unfit for human consumption.

  • Landfills

Materials like plastic when dumped into the landfills, leach harmful chemicals into the soil which contaminates the underground water body when they mix with it.

  • Radioactive waste

The production of nuclear energy requires Uranium which is a highly toxic chemical. The nuclear waste produced by such radioactive material needs to be disposed of in an efficient manner and not near or into any water body.

  • Urbanisation

Water bodies are being pushed inwards by the constant urban development. This not only erodes the coastline but also leads to a rise in the other causes of water pollution, like more landfills, increased construction activities, and more industrial activity in the area. Essay on Urbanization in English

Effects of Water Pollution

The water pollution causes the following effects and consequences on humans, and the environment.

  • Aquatic life disruption

Any kind of pollutants like sewage, oil spills, plastic waste disposal, and industrial waste disposal harm marine life. Sewage harms the shellfish in the coastal areas; plastic waste creates the danger of entanglement for animals like ducks and penguins for example. Aquatic animals including some endangered species are at risk of extinction five times more than that of wildlife.

  • Effect on the food chain 

The small fishes consume the pollutants present in water and pass the harmful effects up in the food chain to other bigger fishes.

  • Human Health 

Humans for the topmost tier of the food chain and by consuming the fish and seafood affected by water pollution, they are prone to several diseases like hepatitis. Drinking contaminated underground water causes diseases like cholera, malaria, and diarrhoea in humans and several other diseases in animals as well. Almost 700 million people globally drink contaminated water every day. Swimming in a polluted water body causes skin rashes and health problems like cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in people.

  • The effect on marine flora 

Coral reefs are affected by the rising water temperature caused by industries in the surrounding areas. The marine life also resorts to untimely migration due to the contamination of their habitat.

  • Flooding 

The deposit of wastes on the waterbed causes the water levels to rise, thus encroaching the land and flooding it.

  • Mercury Poisoning

Some industrial wastes contain mercury which poisons the surface and underground water for humans and marine life.

  • Noise

The seismic noise used to find oil and gas also can be deemed as a pollutant for the water bodies.

Facts and Statistics about Water Pollution

Almost 14 billion pounds of waste, out of which approx 8 billion is plastic waste alone, is dumped into the oceans every year. The most sacred river of India, the Ganges River is one of the most polluted rivers in the world with people dumping flowers, human ashes and a lot of other religious waste in it. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has assessed that the number of rivers polluted in India has more than doubled from 121 to 275 in the last five years with the primary cause for it being sewage.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) estimates, that the situation in the states is even worse with 1.2 trillion gallons of untreated sewage, stormwater, and industrial waste being dumped into its waters annually. Over 30 billion tons of urban sewage gets discharged into the water bodies every year. UNICEF stated in its reports that more than 3,000 children die every day globally due to consumption of contaminated drinking water

Steps were taken by the government to combat water pollution threat

The government, through its various environmental audits, has time and again assessed the damages caused by water pollution.  Several policies and laws have already been implemented to curb the same. Some of the key laws being:

  • Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974– The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and the State Pollution Control Board ( SPCB) have been established by the central and state authorities under this act to promote the cleanliness of small water bodies in different states.
  • The Shore Nuisance Bombay and Kolaba Act- Under this Act, the state is empowered by a competent authority to remove any obstruction which exists below the high watermark
  • Orissa River Pollution Act, 1953- This Act regulates the disposal of waste and effluents into the river by the factories.

These are only a few of the laws that are aimed at controlling the water pollution in an exhaustive list, also containing The River Boards Act (1956), The Damodar Valley Corporation Prevention of Water Pollution Act (1948) etc. Even the Indian Penal Code has provisions laid down to prevent water pollution. Section 277 of the IPC provides for “the punishment to be given to the person who commits an offence of fouling of a public reservoir or a public spring voluntarily shall be liable to be punished with imprisonment of three months or with a fine of 500 Rupees or with both”

Other steps taken by the government include:

  • Implementation of an Online effluent monitoring system
  • Periodic audits to evaluate the water quality and effects of water pollution
  • Compliance with the action plan formulated by CPCB and SPCB to combat water pollution.
  • Formulation of an action plan for efficient sewage management and restoration of water quality by State Governments
  • Implementation of the National River Conservation Plan which aims at controlling the water pollution levels in rivers along with conservation plans.
  • Clean Ganga Campaign launched by the Prime Minister, Mr. Modi
  • The government is trying to make sanitation services available at all levels to combat the problem of sewage and excreta polluting the water bodies.
  • The government is also working actively towards water conservation by educating the farmers and construction of check dams and de-silting of water bodies.

Along with the government, even the citizens need to take it upon themselves to adopt small measures to reduce the levels of water pollution like:

  • Minimizing the use of detergents, fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides
  • Trash segregation into recyclable and non-recyclable goods
  • Inculcating civic habits like not polluting the rivers and seas with any kind of waste.
  • Installing toilets in the house to stop the practice of human excreta polluting the water bodies
  • People should not litter the beaches with plastic and other waste materials as it pollutes the water body not only for humans but also for marine life.


‘Water and air, the two essential fluids on which life depends, have become global garbage cans.’ – Jacques Yves Cousteau.

Every step that we take towards controlling this menace will be a part of the bigger step towards achieving a cleaner environment. There will be some time before the positive effects of these steps will start to become visible, but when they do then the water of the worlds will sparkle clean again.

Tips for Essay on Water Pollution

Here, we have given you some best tips for writing your essay.

  • Essays mainly have three components and those are the introduction to the topic, some paragraphs of the main story, and ending the essay with the conclusion.
  • The conclusion should be short yet meaningful.
  • Use a dark inked pen to write your essay. It creates more impact.
  • Keep your handwriting neat and clean.
  • Be updated with the statistics and figures in your topic.
  • Use the right figure of speeches, expressions, proverbs wherever suitable.

Tips for Speech on Water Pollution

In this section, we have given you some best tips to prepare yourself for the speech on water pollution.

  • Confidence is very important while delivering your speech. So be confident.
  • Practice in front of your friends, and family members and even the mirror to gain confidence.
  • Be loud enough to be audible to the audience.
  • Do not mumble.
  • Keep eye contact with the audience.
  • Make good use of your body language and hand gestures.

I hope you guys liked this essay, speech, article. If yes then please leave a comment in the comment section. Thank you. 🙂

About the author

Ajay Chavan

"Cut from a different cloth"
I believe words have the power to change the world. So, here I am, determined to change the world and leave my mark on it, one word at a time.
A writer, amateur poet, ardent dog lover, Sanskrit & Urdu enthusiast, and a seeker of Hiraeth.

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