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Essay on Pollution, Causes, Effects, Speech in English

Essay on Pollution, Causes, Effects, Speech in English

No one likes pollution and we are kind of aware of the problems and reasons for the pollution be it water, air, soil or noise pollution. However, what we usually do not know is the systematic manner in which it brings upon the destruction of this environment we are living in. In this article, we have given you the information about pollution, it’s types, causes, effects, solutions and control measures etc. This information will help you to write an essay on pollution and also for preparing a speech on pollution. In the second section, we have also given a separate speech on pollution.

Essay on Pollution, Causes, Effects, Solutions, Speech for Class 3 to 12

The meaning of pollution has been well defined as the introduction of contaminated particles in various forms into the different layers and parts of the environment. Pollution is mainly a direct result of pollutants that have the potential to damage the parts and processes of natural ecological balance. However, it is best to keep in mind that pollutants are not necessarily synthetic every time.

There are even naturally occurring materials that cause pollution when released in excessive amounts. For example, forest fires create sulfur dioxide which is highly polluting in nature. However, extreme and recurrent cases of natural polluting sources are mostly a by-product of man-made ill choices with regards to the environment.

History of Pollution

The history of pollution is most necessarily one where urban pollution played havoc with the environment. Industrial Revolution, marked the highest spake in the current pollution problem. Taking place around 1760-1820, the total shift from an agrarian world economic order to the concentration of manufacturing and resultant dependence upon factories and machinery, resulted in too much of synthetic production. Coupled with the fact that there was no research and innovation as well as a knowledge base to counter the malicious effects of rampant pollution, hence the process went on without much hindrance.

The use of coal as the chief raw material for most industrial production as well as fuel for huge unwieldy machinery was the chief initial air pollutants. Further, the rise of industrial waste contributed to the famous Thames Stink of 1878 and Berlin was at the top of charts for a worst sanitary and sewerage system in Europe.

Although there was the construction of an efficient sewerage system to combat the woes of continuous pollution, yet the factor of the environment was hardly heeded upon. In due course pollution affected other parts of the world including the United States of America as well as several other countries which were forced by industrial majors to convert into industrial economies.

Post the 2nd world war, given the rise of nuclear weaponization, radiation issues emerged in leading countries like the US, USSR, UK, and parts of Europe. As nuclearization gripped various parts of the world, with the related troubles of continuous nuclear testing in atmosphere, sea, and space, there was the added pressure of environmental damage for radiation.

Precisely the following sectors in a chronological manner contributed to the highest amount in the environment pollution process.

  • Textiles
  • Manufacturing industries
  • Armament and ammunition industries
  • Oil and tanker industries
  • Nuclear hazards

Even synthetic fertilizers used for improving agrarian production cause considerable pollution, like urea, is a natural pollutant but essential for crop health on a commercial basis. Given the huge pressure of population and the fact that the cost of pollution is not visible on a short-term basis, hence most industries take little note of it. The indirect effect of pollution in terms of people’s convenience and creation of goods for value and market reasons, far outweigh the negative aspects of pollution for ordinary understanding.

Types of Pollution

Although various kinds of pollution are clubbed under a common head, yet the various types of pollution actually form the total basis for environmental pollution.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution remains the leading source of pollution in the modern-day world. It happens when the unchecked amount of gases, having a significant prospect to contaminate the atmosphere, is released continuously over time in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides (from industrial waste), nitrogen oxides emanating out of high temperature volatile heated substances, carbon monoxide, methane released from vehicles form the major source of air pollution in the world.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution is another main source of pollution. It is primarily the result of various industrial waste getting dumped directly into rivers and water bodies supplying water for potable purposes across the places. Groundwater has the potential of being heavily polluted on account of septic tank leaks, latrines which are constructed without adequate sewerage system check. Chlorine, heavy bleaches used for industries form an acute nexus to pollute water in rivers systematically. Often, waste disposal facilities are constructed near water bodies in order to facilitate odour-free disposal of waste, which turns counterproductive and in turn heavily pollutes water bodies as well as any water supply connected to the same.

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution mostly happens on the account of irresponsible agricultural practices where chemical fertilizers are indiscriminately used to enhance crop growth and commercial production. Principal sources of soil pollution include petroleum hydrocarbons, lead, and solvents for bleaching. Further, during the nuclear armament decades spanning from the 1960s to 80s several nuclear tests and ammunition strength were carried out underground which caused a burst in radiation activities beneath the soil. Indiscriminate mining activities and oil spills from large tankers also contribute to the causes of soil pollution.

Plastic Pollution

Plastic Pollution is currently the epidemic which has engulfed the entire world. Given the durability, strength and attractive option of being use and throw, plastic gained grounds ever since it’s inception. However, it is only in this 21st century that the world has woken up to the catastrophic effects of plastic pollution harbours. The ocean bed, several large rivers, and acres of land have become the dumping spot of decades of used plastic products. Recently, products having microbeads were discouraged for use given that microbeads contained plastic in them which rendered it heavily environmentally unfriendly.

Sound Pollution and Light Pollution

Sound Pollution and Light Pollution are the other two areas which do not accrue to direct pollution matters but given the current state of civilization banes, have become a major source of nervous irritability. Roadway traffic, heavy sonar activity, ever-rising incidences of construction work for development activities have given rise to recurrent sound pollution, creating noise higher than the human residential limit of 50 decibels.

Light pollution is a direct result of overactive illumination activities currently undertaken for urban development, beautification purposes. Both of these cause major health issues including irritability, loss of hearing, intolerance to light and raise conditions like a migraine and other associated health complications.

Causes of Pollution

The instances of heavy pollution have several causes behind it which upon analysis, reveals the following problems:

Excessive Dependence on fossil fuels

The continuous relying upon nonrenewable sources of energy like coal, gas reserves and other fuel which has high emission rates has been the number one reason for excessive pollution.

Environment standards not given a universally accepted strict regime. Across the globe, there is an only protocol for environmental standards with no common consensus for strict implementation of pollution-free steps. This results in discriminatory approaches of various nations towards the issue of pollution and environment protection.

Indiscriminate Dumping

Previously there was the tendency and trend to open thermal, power and other heavy emission factories near river, sea or barren land. The waste released from them over time as well as rising waste generated from the growing population has been the chief contributor to the pollution problem on earth.

Overuse of disposable material

Heavy reliance upon plastic, the main pollutant at the present time, has seen choking of river beds and innumerable death of aquatic and ocean animals for ingesting plastic over time.

Effects of Pollution

The effects of pollution are visible when one analyses the fact that currently, toxic pollution has been affecting over 200 million people globally. On account of the Bhopal Gas Tragedy in India in 1984, in that area successive generations saw children being born with severe birth and congenital defects.  Cases of TB, cancer besides massive water contamination by radioactive elements were reported by several NGOs. Thus it is much evident that the kind of destruction upon human life brought in by pollution.

According to several reports, in 2014 the USA produced almost 258 million tonnes of solid waste. Out of which less than 40 per cent was utilized by recycling. Post the nuclear leakage in Japan in 2011, it was reported that close to one-fourth of aquatic life bordering Pacific coast was susceptible to radiation effects.

It is scientifically proven that people who live near highways have a greater chance of giving birth to autistic children as a result of high pollution around freeways. The Ancient Greek Acropolis was more damaged in the past 40 years on a cumulative basis than any other time in history on account of the rampant incidence of acid rain.

Soil Erosion, landslides are getting more common in hilly terrains under the dual effect of deforestation and illegal construction of development features in and around those areas. Such incidents contribute as a major factor for recurrent earthquakes and cause steady plate tectonic movements and massive geological intervention.

Solutions to Stop Pollution

Even though the present scenario dominating pollution looks bleak yet there are several ways in which we could provide a solution to prevent the rise of pollution.

Make environment-friendly choices in day to day routine. For example, the current ban in India on plastic bags in most states has given rise to biodegradable alternatives like cloth and jute bags. Prevent further global warming by planting of saplings proportional to the trees being cut for development purposes.

Rely on clean and renewable sources of fuel like solar energy, wind energy, and biogas production. In India, many residential projects are coming up that have exclusive solar panels for energy sources. Switching to electric cars has by far the best potential to reduce air pollution on a substantial basis, given that vehicle pollution is currently the most common cause of environmental damage.

El Salvador put a ban on metal mining since 2008, which proved how a country for the greater good could stand against corporate greed. More such steps on the part of the government are required from other countries in order to put an end to the corporate exploitation of natural resources.

Pollution in India

In India, the issue of pollution has been bothering for a long time but it was only after the regular smog incidents in New Delhi in 2014, that the administration has been able to identify it as a crucial issue. In India, the recent survey in 2018 by the World Health Organization revealed that out of major polluted cities in the world, the top 14 most polluted cities belong in India. Air pollution determined by the presence of PM 2.5 matter in one cubic meter, was most pronounced in Kanpur leading at 173 micrograms per cubic meter.

Vehicle exhaust, the outdated public transport system that has still not upgraded itself to CNG or clean fuel technology, most industries and factories (tanneries and soap factories) having zero compliance with emission standards, all such factors contribute to causing of acute air pollution in India. Post-2010, the health issues increased to exposure to heavy pollution like COPD, lung cancer and lead poisoning, has seen a sharp rise in Indian cities.

The 2014 Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched keeping in mind the growing trend of dumping litters and pollution in major rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Narmada. Eliminating open defecation was the most pressing objective under the mission, as the habit has caused immense polluting tendencies across coastal and riverine areas. Zero access to industrial waste recycling and several sewage systems not having treatment facilities were the primary reasons for heavy pollution in major Indian rivers. | Essay on How to Save Rivers – Life Lines of India

Although there is a separate board of National Water Quality Monitoring Network under the Central Pollution Control Board to oversee water conditions across the major water and river lines, yet on account of rampant tendency to bypass environment standards, often the results are in discrepancy with the ground reality. Crop fires where farmers put unclaimed produce on fire in open, is still a common agriculture practice in India, with almost no solution at sight. Such compulsive resource destroying trends result in India’s growing problem of environmental degradation.


With global temperatures rising steadily at a rate of 1 degree Celsius per year, global warming, a direct consequence of pollution has already caused visible alterations in the world environment. With such key discussion so far, it is only imperative that the youth and current generation especially adapt to the cause of preventing pollution to enable future generations to enjoy the resources of the earth.

Tips for Essay on Pollution for Students

Sometimes writing an essay can be a difficult thing. Don’t worry, we are here to help you. In this section, we have given you some of the best tips to write your essay on pollution. Let’s see.

  • Before starting to write your essay. Clear your mind from the unnecessary thoughts. Take a deep breath and think about what you are going to write in your essay, what’s the motive and scope of the topic
  • Decide key points and their sub-points either in your mind or write them down somewhere on rough paper.
    There are various types of essay writing, so before starting to write your essay on pollution determine what kind of essay is asked.
  • You can adopt 5 paragraph essay structure, where you introduce the topic in the introductory paragraph. Next 3 paragraphs should be used to make your point and last one if for the conclusion.
  • Most of the time students miss out of the conclusion section, it is a very important section as this tells the reader that you are trying to convey in your essay. It’s the take away from your essay.
  • Use a dark inked pen to write your essay to make more impact.

I hope you liked my humble attempt to share the information. If you liked then please comment down below. Thank you. 🙂

About the author

Ajay Chavan

"Cut from a different cloth"
I believe words have the power to change the world. So, here I am, determined to change the world and leave my mark on it, one word at a time.
A writer, amateur poet, ardent dog lover, Sanskrit & Urdu enthusiast, and a seeker of Hiraeth.

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