In today’s fast-paced world, men and women are progressing a shoulder to shoulder in every professional field. Women around the world have proved that they are equally strong and qualified for every task in the world. Today women are grabbing the opportunities to become successful but what about those innocent girls who could not even get the opportunity to live? Yes, we are talking about female foeticide(feticide) and infanticide. And this essay on female foeticide will put more light on the issue.
Female Foeticide and infanticide is the stigma of society. And sadly this evil still exists over the centuries. Even after the massive advancement in science and technology our minds are still stuck in the medieval ages. But we need to take some actions to stop this social evil and give the right of living to all the girls.
In this article, we have given you the information about female foeticide and infanticide such as causes of female foeticide, it’s history, effects, solutions, female foeticide in India, it’s statistics and laws, campaigns and acts started to abolish the female feticide and infanticide. This information will help to write a long as well as short essay on female foeticide, infanticide in India and to even for the speech on female foeticide in India. This information will also help you with paragraph writing too. So let’s start.
Essay on Female Foeticide, Infanticide in India Causes, Effects, Solutions
Female foeticide is the practice of abortion whereupon the knowledge of the gender of the fetus growing in the mother’s womb is selectively aborted in case the fetus is a girl. It not only involves selective abortion but also involves the malpractice of patriarchy where the ONLY male child is kept alive at the cost of one or more female lives.
History of Female Foeticide
The concept of female foeticide is not new neither like the present day was it just an Asian practice. For several centuries, selective female harming was practised in every form. There were instances of female infanticide in the early days of Western civilization. Before the advent of ultrasound, female babies were often killed by methods like poisoning, strangulation and other ways.
However, post the Greco Roman advent of Christianity, it championed the status of women by opposing infanticide of every form. The significance of having a better sex ratio was understood and the importance and role of the high female ratio in the future of evolution were well appreciated.
However, in societies which did very less and progressed the least in terms of gender awareness, female foeticide continued beyond the medieval era into the modern age. In India and China, female foeticide and infanticide continue their tentacled spread until the 21st century. One must understand that female foeticide cannot be supported under the garb of a woman’s right to abortion. Female foeticide consists of dual unethical practice. One, the practice of murdering a fetus and two, the selective practice of gender discrimination.
The right of women for abortion is not equivalent to either of the phenomenon as in it the status of women is much higher on account of the fact that a woman then has the right to abort a child based on her own decision and not because the fetus is a female one. India and China both fare poorly when it comes down to female foeticide which further deteriorates the historically low status of women in these two countries.
Causes of Female Foeticide, Infanticide
There are several causes behind the abusive practice of female foeticide. Some of them are the following:
The use of technology for the wrong means
Female foeticide directly points to the age-old trouble of technology utilized for bringing about societal harm. Pre ultrasound era, although there was infanticide, the access to ultrasound brought easy detection of sex at the fourth month of pregnancy. In female fetuses, the detection is almost 100 per cent accurate in most cases.
This gave rise to widespread abuse of the ultrasound technology coupled with other artificial birth practices like special selection facilities available for children born through IVF or test-tube babies. Gynaecologists and radiologists with the lure of money cooperated with people who desired male babies and took upon the crime of female foeticide. (Essay On Science And Technology)
Bias For a male child
More than other cultural practices, a general bias for a male child has been characterized across the globe. In the medieval era, Western civilization thought it was a glory to bear a boy while girls only brought troubles with them. In India and the South Asian subcontinent, the desire for a male child was so rampant that it leads to several consecutive childbearing processes on a single woman under the pressure to bear a boy child.
It only points towards the general discourse of allocating useful economic resource to a male child while the women are left only with peripheral low skill and domestic choices. The work of a male child is mostly deemed ‘productive’ while the female work is taken with low or zero value. (Gender Equality Essay, Speech & Article)
Dowry and Low Education
The problem of dowry and a lower degree of education is almost interrelated. Lack of education forces people to marry off their daughters more early as without adequate education, training, and confidence of self-respect they are almost sure of finding not so good jobs which make them more prone to finding life through marriage.
Again because of marriage people are forced to pay dowry which often exceeds the limits they can afford. In turn, the marriage of daughters seems the costliest affair without getting back much in return, which reinforces the belief that a daughter is a burden for most cases.
Less Social Security
Relying on sons for old age has been a traditional custom in several countries like India. This is primarily because there is a lack of social support from the government or other sources in old age which makes people resort to looking up to son’s earnings as the only financial sustenance available.
This more than anything makes daughter look a far less viable medium to rely on as they would get married and go to another family while the son is supposed to stay back with his own family.
Effects of Female Foeticide, Infanticide
The most profound effect of female foeticide lies in the fact that sustained female fetus abortion leads to a highly unstable sex ratio, which is the ratio of males to females. A good sex ratio is one of the crucial prerequisites of evolution as only a healthy male-female equilibrium would ensure world population retaining healthy demography in the future.
Already, the skewed sex ratio has resulted in the low availability of females the male population can get married to in pockets of Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan in India. Worldwide, female foeticide, in the long run, produces consequences like an increase in crime rates of female trafficking, rape against women and other alarming situations.
The reason behind such a trend would be the biological urge for procreation with low availability of women who are natural sustainer for procreation. Even early marriage is a probable consequence for a world with fewer women, due to the fact that early marriage or selling off women early in age would bring about the higher number of children in the biological time of the woman. (Violence Against Women Essay, Speech & Article)
The effects of female foeticide are one that is not visible in the short term. It is only in the long run that the acute and scary consequences would start showing themselves.
Solutions to Female Foeticide
Although there are laws in place to tackle the heinous crime of female foeticide yet it goes without saying that a problem with such scope, is impossible to be tackled without other substantial changes. The ways in which female foeticide can be dealt with primarily lies in aggressive public advertisement AGAINST the idea of foeticide itself.
It must be the task of NGOs and government-sponsored agencies to make aware people about how a skewed sex ratio will bring down chances of their son getting married in the long run. The idea of ‘more sons the better’ should also be publicized against.
A phenomenal breakthrough was achieved by the General Electric (GE) company who have recently devised ultrasound machines that can be internally tweaked to suppress any information relating to the gender of the unborn fetus. With the use of the device, all other medical information pertaining to the ultrasound would remain the same just that no gender identity would be revealed.
However, it remains a question of how to dismantle the thousands of existing ultrasound machines with these as it would involve cost, infrastructural logistic problems as well. (Meri Beti Mera Abhiman: Ek Nayi Shuruwaat Campaign)
The culture of female empowerment and disbursing more female contraceptive methods is another major way in which the issue of female foeticide can be tackled. In the absence of adequate contraceptive measures, the women are mostly forced to choose the path of abortion in case they conceive another female child.
Female Foeticide, Infanticide in India
Female foeticide is no doubt a cruel practice, is perhaps most widely practised as a crime in India. It is estimated that over one million female fetuses have been selectively killed in India, making it a country with one of the worst skewed sex ratio. The sex ratio in India has seen a steady fall from 976 females per 1000 males in 1961 to 933 females per 1000 males in 2011. India has always been one of the hubs of female foeticide across the globe making it rather ill famous on international platforms dealing with gender equality.
Back in the 1970s, Punjab had a slogan, ‘give 5000 rupees today and save 50000 rupees later’, which directly advocated to resist a woman from giving birth to a girl child which in turn would save the parents of paying 50000 rupees or more dowry later.
The most disturbing aspect of such advertisement rests in the fact that the advertisements were going on in public, without legal actions against it and that there were so many takers of the practice that such advocacy could flourish. One should take note of the fact that rural India has a marginally higher sex ratio of 947 while urban India has lower sex ratio standing at a mere 900.
One can study the following facts for a better understanding of the trend invested in female foeticide across the country:
- The northern states are at a higher risk of low and skewed female sex ratio. Delhi NCR region is one of the lowest at around 868 and 818 respectively.
- States of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir, and Madhya Pradesh occupy the lower ranks of child sex ratio with an average of 883 as child sex ratio for all such states.
- The southern states fare relatively well in child sex ratio with Kerala having the best ratio of 1084 as sex ratio and 964 as child sex ratio. This is closely followed by Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
- The North-Eastern states, in general, are far better in sex ratio with Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh having average child sex ratio that is higher than the national average of 933.
Why is sex ratio important?
The answer to this question lies in the fact that an unsatisfactory sex ratio is mostly linked to selective abortion of fetuses biased against the females. Given the fact that the technology of ultrasound arrived in India in around 1980s and gained popularity through 1990s, one can find the direct correlation of ultrasound prevalence with a falling sex ratio in the census. This also partially explains the reason behind a lower sex ratio in urban areas compared to rural areas as in the former, there is a greater occurrence of such illegal ultrasound centres.
The initial reason behind the crime of female foeticide was the system of dowry that was legalized under the British Raj. Given the exploitative economic measures and primary role of Indians attributed to low skill low pay jobs, most could not afford the dowry for marrying off their daughter. To add to woes, female education was also discouraged and marriage was the only dignified way to cope with a daughter’s ‘burden’.
Thus the system of female foeticide started with much zeal and reached to an extent where there was just one girl for 100 boys in a region. The female infanticide act under the British helped to curb such tendencies to some extent. Nevertheless, due to the presence of the family customs and tradition of suppressing rationality, female foeticide continued in most parts.
When the law against female foeticide was finally passed in 1994 and amended further in 2003, much damage had already been done with respect to the female fetus abortion. The World Bank has estimated that India’s sex ratio is going to dip further to below 900 by 2031, given their study of the present trends. The reasons ranging from dowry to male child preference to gender discrimination altogether contribute to the barbaric practice of female foeticide in India.
Campaigns and Acts to combat Female Foeticide
In India, the ban on ultrasound detection of fetuses’ gender was banned in 1996 under the law of Ban on Prenatal testing. However according to reports and census even then there were several unauthorized clinics that carried on the malpractice of female foeticide. Regular campaigns take place in various places like Gandhinagar in Gujarat on several occasions where government officials participate in public speaking campaigns in order to sensitize people on the issue of female foeticide.
The recent Beti Padhao Beti Bachao scheme was also launched keeping in mind the need to develop awareness regarding the education of girl child which is the first step towards making people realize that daughters should be as much valued as a son.
The problem of female foeticide is not new but has dated back to century-old ill customs. It is high time that the social evil should be completely eradicated and in the quest for the same, each person from the current generation need to veer from this traditional practice and raise their actions for a female foeticide free society.
Tips for Essay on Female Foeticide, Infanticide
Here are some useful tips for writing the essay on female foeticide and female infanticide.
- Any essay is made of a specific structure. The essay starts with the introduction of the topic, followed by the information body paragraph and ending the essay with the conclusion. Write your essay on the female foeticide in this format.
- There are various Types of Essay Writing. Determine what type of essay you are going to write.
- Keep the conclusion of your essay short yet meaningful.
- Use a dark inked pen to write your essay.
Tips for Speech on Female Foeticide, Infanticide
Here we have some useful tips for delivering your speech on female foeticide, female infanticide.
- Before delivering your speech, practice it in front of your friends, family members or even the mirror to gain confidence.
- Stage fear is a common thing. So do not make it an issue. Try to keep calm and deliver your speech.
- Be loud enough to be audible to the whole audience.
- Keep your speech updated with the latest information.
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